Deviation from edge straightness, usually referring to the greatest deviation of the side edge from a straight line.
A plantar deflection of a flat cable of flexible lamination from a straight line of specified length.
Ex. ¼" in 8 feet Cast
Determined by measuring the diameter of a single strand of wire from one side through the center to the opposite side.

Cold Reduction

Cold Reduction, % = (Ti - Tf)/Ti x 100
Ti= Initial Thickness
Tf = Final Thickness


A term used in the mechanical testing to describe the amount of extension of a test piece when stressed. In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.


A measure of the resistance of a material to surface indentation or abrasion; may be thought of as a function of the stress required to produce some specified type of surface deformation. There is no absolute scale for hardness; therefore, to express hardness quantitatively, each type of test has its own scale of arbitrarily defined hardness. Indentation hardness can be measured by Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop and Scleroscope hardness tests.


Determined by measuring the vertical height of a strand, or strands, of wire from a flat surface.


In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called ultimate strength. Measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa)


The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for metals. Measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa).